The cervical cancer starts in the cells of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb). Cervical cancer occurs when the cervical cells become abnormal and over a period of time grow out of control in the cervix. These abnormal cancer cells spread deeper into cervical tissue and form a mass, called as tumor. Sometimes in advanced cases, these cells spread to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and mixed carcinoma are the three types of cervical cancer.
The squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of cervical cancer and is followed by the adenocarcinoma. The mixed carcinoma is a rarely detected cervical cancer. A major cause of the cervical cancer is infection due to human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer screening is conducted to detect any changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead to the cancer. The screening is made for testing pre-cancer and cancer in women.
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The screening can detect low-grade changes in cervical cells and can easily be treated to avoid cancer. This screening further helps to detect the cancer at early stages and can be cured to facilitate quality life. As it takes 3 to 7 years to develop low-grade cells to cancer, screening is the only effective way to prevent cancer and mortality. Conventional Pap test, liquid-based cytology (LBC), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and HPV testing for high-grade changes in cervical cells are the different types of cervical cancer screening test available.
The global cervical cancer screening market is expected to be driven by increasing prevalence of cervical cancer patients in less developed countries. According to Globocan, 19.3 million new cases of cervical cancer are estimated each year by 2025. Out of these, 85% of patients are from less developed countries. Initiatives taken by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with other global health institutes to promote cervical cancer screening programs in less developed countries boost the growth opportunity of the market in these countries.
Increase in awareness about cervical cancer in developed countries and in developing countries through socio-economic activities, cancer policies, and health care policies are projected to boost the market growth during the forecast period. The cervical cancer death rates in the U.S. have decreased to 50% over the last 40 years mainly due to increased use of the Pap test. However, lack of awareness among women in less developed countries, lack of accessibility for appropriate screening test, and shortage of skilled medical staff to perform tests and good laboratories are estimated to restrain the growth of the market during the forecast period.
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The global cervical cancer screening market is segmented by test, end-user, and geography. The cervical cancer test is segmented into Pap test, HPV test, and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) test. Out of these tests, the Pap test is the most commonly used test for detection of pre-cancer stages, followed by VIA. The HPV test is performed for screening high risk cancer cells and is less frequently used for cervical cancer detection. These screening tests are used and performed by different end-users such as hospitals, clinics, home care, diagnostic centers, and laboratories. The clinics segment dominates the market for cervical cancer screening, which are followed by the hospitals and laboratories segments.
On the basis of geography, the global market is distributed over North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Developed countries such as the U.S., the U.K., and Germany are expected to dominate the market during the forecast period mainly due to growth in awareness about cervical cancer in women and high quality health care facilities.
The market growth in developing countries are likely to be at a higher rate as a result of increasing expenses in health care facilities, government policies, and initiatives taken by health care institutes for awareness about cervical cancer. The African countries and the Latin America region exhibit a huge potential for the growth of the market as majority of the cervical cancer cases are detected in these regions.
The key leading players of the market providing cervical cancer screening tests and kits are Hologic, Inc., QIAGEN, Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD), F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (Roche), Femasys Inc., Onko Solutions, TruScreen Ltd., and ACM Medical Laboratory. Among these, BD, Roche, and Onko Solutions are the dominating players of the global cervical cancer screening market.